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Referencing: In-text citations and list of references

References

Links to detailed referencing instructions on this page:

The examples in this guide are an application of Haaga-Helia reporting guidelines produced by Haaga-Helia's thesis coordinators, where the in-text citation provides author's name, year of the publication and page number(s). You may also use Harvard style, if you use RefWorks reference management programme.

Referencing consists of two parts: in-text citations and list of references (bibliography). The in-text citation refers to the list of references (bibliography) at the end of the document, that provides the full details of the source.

The list of references is placed between the text and appendices. It is alphabetised according to author's surname (or, if no author is indicated, by the publisher's name). Articles (a, an, the, en, ett) are ignored when alphabetising.

The format of a reference depends on the number of authors, type of reference, and whether you are referring to a single or multiple sentences in your text. Therefore, it is recommended to cross-check both "General guidelines to different types of references" and the examples of types of references below. The format of examples is as follows:

If in doubt how to document a reference, please consult your supervisor.

General guidelines to different types of references

Referring to single sentence in your text

Referring to multiple sentences in your text

In-text reference is part of a sentence where you paraphrase the idea in your own words.

Full stop after the sentence and the in-text reference.

In-text reference is a separate sentence at the end of the paraphrased text.

Full stop after the sentence. Also add a full stop to the text reference (within parentheses).

Aro (2018, 168) recommends using an outside consultant to deal with the problems recognised in the workplace atmosphere.

or

It has been recommended that an outside consultant is used when dealing with regognised problems in the workplace atmosphere (Aro 2018, 168).

It has been recommended that an outside consultant is used when dealing with problems recognised in the workplace atmosphere. A consultant coming from outside the organization can work neutrally and has a lot of experience in good solutions. (Aro 2018, 168.)

 

The format of the reference is as follows depending on the number of the authors. The examples below are from book sources. This referencing style is applied to other source types as well.

 

Entry on the list of references

In-text citation  

Pears, R. 2019. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. Red Globe Press. London. 

(Pears 2019, 65­­­–69)
or
According to Pears (2019, 65­­­–69) ...

Single author.

Atrill, P. & McLaney E. J. 2019. Accounting and finance for non-specialists. Pearson. Harlow.

(Atrill & McLaney 2019, 27)
or
Atrill and McLaney (2019, 27) suggest ...

Two authors.

Stickdorn, M., Lawrence, A., Hormess, M. E. & Schneider, J. 2018. This is service design methods: A companion to this is service design doing. O'Reilly Media. Sebastopol.

(Stickdorn, Lawrence, Hormess & Schneider 2018, 35)
or
According to Stickdorn, Lawrence, Hormess and Schneider (2018, 35) this is because ..

3-5 authors, when referring to them for the first time.

Stickdorn, M., Lawrence, A., Hormess, M. E. & Schneider, J. 2018. This is service design methods: A companion to this is service design doing. O'Reilly Media. Sebastopol. (Stickdorn & al. 2018, 72)

3-5 authors, when referring to them again.

Potter, T., Lynch, S., Newton, A., Harris, B., Fox, E. & Stein, K. 2020. Thesis survival guide. Easypress. Bath. (Potter & al. 2020, 30)

6 or more authors.

 

Sources alphabetised according to author's surname: the sources are separated by a semicolon.

Lähdeluettelon merkintä Tekstiviite

Pears, R. 2019. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. Red Globe Press. London.
Potter, T., Lynch, S., Newton, A., Harris, B., Fox, E., Stein, K. 2020. Thesis survival guide. Easypress. Bath.

Alphabetised according to author's surname in the list of references.

 

(Pears 2019, 65­­­–69; Potter & al 2020, 65-67)

 

If there is more than one source from the same author from the same year, sources are distinguished from one another by adding a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) after the publication year following the order in which the sources appear in your text.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Smith, J. 2020a. How to lead people. HR Publishing. New York.
Smith, J. 2020b. Accepting change. HR Publishing. New York.
Smith, J. 2020c. Reward system and leadership. HR Publishing. New York.

(Smith 2020a, 6)
(Smith 2020b, 15­­­–22)
(Smith 2020c, 9)

 

If the author is unknown, the name of the publishing organisation (e.g. company, organisation) replaces the the name of the author.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Ministry of Justice 2017. National action plan on fundamental and human rights. Ministry of Justice. Helsinki.

(Ministry of Justice 2017, 29-30)

If there are multiple sources from the same organisation, see Several sources from the same author.

NB. If the source does not include a personal author or a recognised publisher/organisation as an author, consider carefully whether to use it at all.

 

If the year of publication is not known, use the abbreviation s.a. (sine anno, without a year). As an example a website, date of publication unknown.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health s.a. Indoor air problems at the workplace. URL: https://www.ttl.fi/en/service/indoor-air-problems-at-workplaces/. Accessed: 29 April 2020.

(Finnish Institute of Occupational Health s.a.)

NB: This method of referencing is not recommended.

Try to use the original source (primary source). If you need to use a secondary source instead of the original one, refer only to the secondary source, and include it in the list of references.

In the example Lacoste is the primary source, while the author has used Jaring & Bäck as the secondary source.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Jaring, P. & Bäck, A., 2017. How researchers use social media to promote their research and network with industry. Technology Innovation Management Review, 7, 8, s. 32­­­–39.

Lacoste found that openness of social media and presence of competitors prevent sales managers from using social media in their work (Jaring & Bäck 2017, 34).

or

Lacoste's (2016, in Jaring & Bäck 2017, 34) research showed that openness of social media and presence of competitors prevent sales managers from using social media in their work.

Transliterate the name of the author, and use it as instructed. Transliterate the name of author and publisher and translate both the title and the place of publication into the language of your report.

Pay attention to the difference between the source material and the target material/research material. Only the material used as a source is included in the list of references. The research material (interviews, analysed ads, online discussions etc.) used in the empirical part is not included in the list of references, but instead is presented in some other appropriate way.

Printed sources

Author(s) Year of Publication. Title. Publisher. Place of publication.

Entry on the list of references

In-text citation  
Pears, R. 2019. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. Red Globe Press. London. 

(Pears 2019, 65­­­–69)
or
According to Pears (2019, 65­­­–69) ...

Single author.
Atrill, P. & McLaney E. J. 2019. Accounting and finance for non-specialists. Pearson. Harlow.

(Atrill & McLaney 2019, 27)
or
Atrill and McLaney (2019, 27) suggest ...

Two authors.
Stickdorn, M., Lawrence, A., Hormess, M. E. & Schneider, J. 2018. This is service design methods: A companion to this is service design doing. O'Reilly Media. Sebastopol. (Stickdorn, Lawrence, Hormess & Schneider 2018, 35)
or
According to Stickdorn, Lawrence, Hormess and Schneider (2018, 35) this is because ...
35 authors, when referring to them for the first time.
Stickdorn, M., Lawrence, A., Hormess, M. E. & Schneider, J. 2018. This is service design methods: A companion to this is service design doing. O'Reilly Media. Sebastopol. (Stickdorn & al. 2018, 72) 35 authors, when referring to them again.
Potter, T., Lynch, S., Newton, A., Harris, B., Fox, E. & Stein, K. 2020. Thesis survival guide. Easypress. Bath. (Potter & al. 2020, 19) 6 or more authors.

Simonse, L. 2017. Design Roadmapping. BIS Publishers. Amsterdam.
Stickdorn, M., Lawrence, A., Hormess, M. E. & Schneider, J. 2018. This is service design methods: A companion to this is service design doing. O'Reilly Media. Sebastopol.

Alphabetised according to author's surname in the list of references.

(Simonse 2017, 65; Stickdorn, Lawrence, Hormess & Schneider 2018, 81­­­–82)

Referring to multiple sources in a same sentence or paragraph.

 

When the book is a collection of texts by different authors, and the names of editors are given.

Author(s) of article or chapter Year of publication. Title of article or chapter. Editors of the edited work. Title of the edited work. Page numbers. Publisher. Place of publication.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Vuori, J. 2018. Understanding academic leadership using the four-frame model. In Pekkola, E., Kivistö, J., Kohtamäki, V., Cai, Y. & Lyytinen A. Theoretical and methodological perspectives on higher education management and transformation: An advanced reader for PhD students, pp. 167–178. Tampere University Press. Tampere. (Vuori 2018, 170)  

Author(s) Year of publication. Title of the article. Title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper. Volume, issue number, page number(s).

 

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Jafri, S. 2020. Micro hotels the next trend. Hospitality News Middle East, 128, pp. 34­­­–35.

(Jafri 2020, 34­­­–35)

 Kumar, V. 2017. Integrating theory and practice in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 81, 2, pp. 1­­­–7. (Kumar 2017, 1­­­–7)

Electronic sources

Author(s) Year of publication. Title. Publisher. Place of publication. URL. Retrieval date.

Remove the hyperlink from the web address (see instructions).

E-books and audiobooks do not necessarily have specific page numbers to refer to, or the numbering varies between different e-book devices or the chosen font size. In this case you may refer to the chapter number or title. If the e-book device shows the reading progress in percentages, you may also use this. The main aim is that the reader can locate the exact passage you have cited.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

E-book with page numbering

Allen, J. Digital entrepreneurship. 2018. Routledge. New York. URL: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/haaga/detail.action?docID=5704010. Accessed: 6 April 2020.

 

(Allen 2018, 58–64)

E-book without page numbering

Dunbar-Hester, C. 2020. Hacking diversity. The politics of inclusion in open technology cultures. Princeton University Press. Princeton. URL: https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/hacking-diversity/9780691194172/?ar. Accessed: 1 April 2020.

 

(Dunbar-Hester 2020, chapter 2)

Audiobook

Maharidge, D., Bruder, J. 2020. Snowden's box. Tantor audio. URL: https://www.storytel.com/fi/fi/books/1224098-Snowden-s-Box. Accessed: 1 April 2020.

 

(Maharidge & Bruder 2020, chapter 3)

Author(s) Year of publication. Article title. Journal/magazine/newspaper title. Volume, issue number, page number(s).

 

Entry on list of references In-text citation
Kumar, V. 2017. Integrating theory and practice in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 81, 2, pp. 1–7. (Kumar 2017, 1–3)

Aparicio, S, T. Aparicio, T. &  Costa, C. 2019. Data Science and AI: Trends Analysis. 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Coimbra, pp. 1–6.

(Aparicio, Aparicio & Costa 2019)

 

Researchers have more and more started to publish their work on various research network platforms. These kind of "social media platforms for researchers" include e.g. ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Menderley, MyScienceWork and Social Science Research Network. These platforms are not edited publications as academic publications are and, therefore, it is recommended that you retrieve the original publication and refer to it.

Example

You find an article with a Google Scholar search, and its URL takes to ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sofia_Aparicio2/publication/334483933_Data_Science_and_AI_Trends_Analysis/links/5d9f4b04299bf116fe9b9814/Data-Science-and-AI-Trends-Analysis.pdf

Recommended method of referencing: referring to the original publication

Referring to an article published on a research network site (e.g. ResearchGate)

1. Search the original publication (instructions: see section Find articles by name)

2. Make a reference to the original publication you retrieved from the database:

Aparicio, S., Aparicio, T. &  Costa, C. 2019. Data Science and AI: Trends Analysis. 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Coimbra, pp. 1–6.

 

This method of referencing is not recommended. Use only if the original publication is not available.

 

PDF or other type of file published online that follow the original graphic appearance of a book or a report. Use the same method of referencing as in books:

Author(s) Year of publication. Title. Publisher. Place of publication. URL. Retrieval date.

Remove hyperlink from the web address (see instructions).

Entry on the list of references

In-text citation

Knuuti, J. & Ritola, S. 2019. Total pension in Finland 2019. How are earnings-related pensions, national pensions and taxation determined? Finnish Centre for Pensions. Helsinki. URL: https://www.etk.fi/wp-content/uploads/Total-pension-in-Finland-2019.pdf. Accessed: 6 April 2020.

(Knuuti & Ritola 2019, 11)

Economic policy council 2019. Economic policy council report 2019. Helsinki. URL: https://www.talouspolitiikanarviointineuvosto.fi/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Report-2019.pdf. Accessed: 7 April 2020.

(Economic policy council 2019, 68)

Author(s) Year of publication. Title. Type of thesis (Bachelor's thesis, Master's thesis, Doctoral dissertation). University or University of Applied Sciences, Degree programme or department. URL. Retrieval date.

N.B.! Ask your thesis supervisor or teacher about using theses as source material. Their use may be justified, when you present theses previously published on your topic, for instance. You should use careful consideration before using Bachelor's or Master's theses as information sources for the theoretical part of your paper.

 

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Kataja, T. 2017. Blogging and expert image. Master's thesis. Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Communication Management. URL: http://www.urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-2017111016892. Accessed: 16 April 2020. (Kataja 2017)

Kähäri, O. 2020. The effect of audit experience on audit fees. Evidence from the audit market of large Finnish companies. Master's thesis. Aalto University School of Business, Department of Accounting. URL: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-202003292657. Accessed: 17 April 2020.
(Kähäri 2020)


Hietajärvi, L. 2019. Adolescents’ socio-digital engagement and its relation to academic well-being, motivation, and achievement. Doctoral dissertation. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Educational Sciences. URL: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/304802. Accessed: 17 April 2020.

(Hietajärvi 2019, 10)

Author(s) Year of publication. Title of the webpage. URL. Retrieval date.

Remove hyperlink from the web address (see instructions).

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Tax administration 2019. Starting up business. URL: https://www.vero.fi/en/detailed-guidance/guidance/47780/starting-up-business1/. Accessed: 29 March 2020.

(Tax administration 2019)

Statistics Finland 2018. Educational qualifications highest among persons aged 40 to 44 in 2017. URL: https://www.stat.fi/til/vkour/2017/vkour_2017_2018-11-02_tie_001_en.html. Accessed: 23 March 2020. (Statistics Finland 2018)

 

Author Year of publication. Title of the webpage. Path. Retrieval date.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences 2019. Guidelines of writing reports. Mynet. Study instructions. Accessed: 15 March 2020. (Haaga-Helia 2019)

 

Name of the source Date of the email. Sender's position in the organisation. Name of the organisation. The form of communication, .i.e., email.

In-text citation contains the sender's surname and date of the email.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Kokko, T. 4 July 2019. President. Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences. Email.

(Kokko 4 July 2019)

 

Author Date of the post. Title. Type of the post. URL. Retrieval date.

Remove hyperlink from the web address (see instructions).

Entry in the list of references

In-text citation

Blog

Epstein, J. 14 April 2020. What does ‘omnichannel customer engagement’ mean? Business 2 community blog. URL: https://www.business2community.com/customer-experience/what-does-omnichannel-customer-engagement-mean-02300534. Accessed: 14 April 2020.

 

(Epstein 14 April 2020)

Public Facebook post

European Union 13 January 2020. Climate change is about all of us - -. Facebook post. URL: https://www.facebook.com/EuropeanCommission/posts/2766485036732292. Accessed: 12 March 2020.

 

(European Union 13 January 2020)

Tweet

thisisFINLAND 5 April 2020. Technology-based distance learning could increase inequality, as not everyone owns a computer - -.Tweet @thisisFINLAND. URL: https://twitter.com/thisisFINLAND/status/1246756996512088065. Accessed: 6 April 2020.

 

(thisisFINLAND 5 April 2020)

 

Remove hyperlink from the web address (see instructions).

 

Entry in the list of references In-text citation

Statistical information from Statista database

Morgan Stanley 2017. Number of Airbnb users in the United States and Europe from 2015 to 2020 (in millions). URL: https://www.statista.com/statistics/795877/number-of-airbnb-users/. Accessed: 25 March 2019.
(Morgan Stanley 2017)

Report from Euromonitor International's Passport database

Euromonitor International 2018. Consumer lifestyles in Canada. URL: https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/analysis/tab. Accessed: 15 November 2019.
(Euromonitor International 2018)

Financial statement from Suomen Asiakastieto Oy's Voitto+ database

Suomen Asiakastieto Oy 2019. Rovio Entertainment Oyj financial statement 12/18. Voitto+ database on network drive of Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences. Accessed: 21 November 2019. 

(Suomen asiakastieto Oy 2019)

Podcast

Harvard Business Review 25 February 2020. HBR IdeaCast. Rules for effective hiring - and firing. Podcast. URL: https://hbr.org/podcast/2020/02/rules-for-effective-hiring-and-firing. Accessed: 7 April 2020.

 

(Harvard Business Review 25 February 2020)

Online video

Barrios, G. September 2019. Why gender-based marketing is bad for business? Online video.TED@BCG Mumbai. URL: https://www.ted.com/talks/gaby_barrios_why_gender_based_marketing_is_bad_for_business?language=en. Accessed: 26 March 2019.

Service Design Network 29 January 2018. Documentary: Nordic Service Design. Online video. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=330YCLMDaRg. Accessed: 20 November 2019.

 

(Barrios September 2019)

(Service Design Network 29 January 2018)

Online magazine article

Mull, A. January/February 2020. Stop believing in free shipping. How retailers hide the costs of delivery—and why we’re such suckers for their ploys. The Atlantic. URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2020/01/the-myth-of-free-shipping/603031/. Accessed: 7 April 2020.

 

 

(Mull January/February 2020)

 

Oral sources

Name of the interviewee or informant Date of the communication. Intereviewee's or informant's position in the organisation. Name of the organisation. Form of communication, i.e. interview [or personal communication]. Place of interview.

Pay attention to the difference between the interview used as an information source and interview used as a research material/data. Expert interviews used as an information source are included in the list of references. The interviews used in the empirical part are not included in the list of references, but instead is presented in some other appropriate way.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Korhonen, M. 5 June 2019. Head of human resources. Bestcompany. Interview. Helsinki. (Korhonen 5 June 2019)

Name of the presenter Date of presentation. Presenter's position in the organisation. Title of presentation. Name of the organisation. Form of communication, i.e. seminar presentation/conference presentation. Place of presentation.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

Vaarala, J. 3 February 2019. Chief financial officer. The future of artificial intelligence in accounting. Biggy Corporation. Seminar presentation. Tampere.

(Vaarala 3 February 2019)

Illustrations, figures, tables

You may illustrate your text by using tables, illustrations, or figures. Each one is numbered and titled in their own series. The number and the title of a figure or illustration is placed right below them, whereas the number and the title of a table is placed right above it. If you have a large number of tables or figures, they can be appended to the report.

The sources of the illustrations, figures and tables must be properly indicated. You can find examples in the following tabs.

Image 1. Pikeperch (WWF s.a.)

Image number, title, creator and year of publication is listed right below the illustration.

Entry on the list of references:
WWF s.a. Pikeperch. URL: https://wwf.fi/kalaopas/laji/kuha/. Accessed: 14 April 2020.

 

CC licensed image

 

Image 2. Retail (Dooley, K. s.a. CC BY 2.0)

You may redraw figures if you are unsure whether or not there are any user restrictions (figure 1). If it is known that the use is permitted (permission from the creator or the so-called general citation right under the copyright legislation), you may copy it to your thesis (figure 2, terms and conditions of use are available on the website).

If the information presented in tables or figures is not from your own material, add an in-text reference without end punctuation after the heading.The number and heading of a figure should be palced below the figure.

 

Figure from an e-book, adapted by the thesis writer

 

Figure 1. The crucial relationship between talent management and organization design (adapted from Ulrich, Brockbank, Johnson, Sandholtz & Younger 2008, 100)

Entry on the list of references:

Ulrich, D., Brockbank, W., Johnson, D, Sandholtz, K. & Younger, J. 2008. Hr competencies : mastery at the intersection of people and business. Independent Publishers Group. Alexandria. URL: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000tww&AN=399667&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed: 15 April 2020.

 

Figure from a web page

Figure 2. The food pyramid (Safefood s.a.)

Entry on the list of references:
Safefood s.a. The food pyramid. URL: https://www.safefood.eu/Healthy-Eating/The-Food-Pyramid-and-The-Eatwell-Guide/The-Food-Pyramid.aspx. Accessed: 14 April 2020.

A table chart is a presentation that is arranged in colums and rows. If the data in the table is not obtained through your own research, indicate it by not adding a full stop to the in-text reference after the title. The title of the table is marked right above the table.

 

Table 1. Framework for the future of social media as it relates to marketing issues (Appel,Grewal, Hadi & Stephen 2020, 81)

Entry on the list of references:
Appel, G., Grewal, L., Hadi, R. & Stephen, A.  2020. The future of social media in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48, 1, pp. 79 - 95.

 

Laws, EU directives, standards

Laws

When you refer to an act or decree for the first reference, use the number of the statute and the full name of the law (no./year). For the subsequent references, use the short or abbreviated name of the law.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation  

Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life 759/2004.

(Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life 759/2004)

When referring to the law for the first time.
See Finlex for translations of laws and degrees.

 

(Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life)

 



When referring to the law again:

the name of the law without the statute number or standard abbreviation of name of the law

Chapters, sections, and subsections of laws

When a reference is made to a specific statute, the chapter of the act or decree is mentioned if the law is subdivided into chapters and section numbering starts at  section 1 at the beginning of each chapter. After this refer to the section (§).

Chapter 2, Section 4 of the Code of Real Estate (540/1995) provides the rele-vant provisions on real estate transactions by companies.

If there is a running numbering of sections throughout the law, chapter numbers are not required. If there are no chapters, always use § (section sign).

Section 4 of the Marriage Act (234/1929) generally prohibits marriage by minors.

Reference to a specific paragraph.

Chapter 2, Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the Code of Real Estate (540/1995) states that a real estate purchase must be made in writing.

 

Name of the organ that issued the act or directive, name the act or directive and number of the statute.

Entry on the list of references In-text citation
Regulation on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs 852/2004/EC. Regulation 852/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L226/3, 25 June 2004, pp. 3–21.

(Regulation on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs 852/2004/EC)

Entry on the list of references In-text citation

International Accounting Standard 18. Revenue. International Accounting Standards Board.

(International Accounting Standard 18 paragraph 14)