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Guide to Publishing: Open access publishing

Open Access Publishing options

There are different ways to make your research paper or article open access.

Gold OA  (journals)
In gold OA the publishers make the paper or article immediately and freely available from the point of publication, and usually, but not always, apply an article processing charge (APC).

Green OA  (self-archiving)
Green OA involves making a copy of paper or article, usually the final draft, openly available in an institutional repository, for example Theseus. Publishers stipulate which version of the paper or article can be deposited and specify an embargo period following publication before the paper can be made open access.

Hybrid OA
Hybrid OA refers to subscription journals that charge an extra fee to make a specific article open access while the remainder of the journal remains behind a paywall. The APC can be costly in high impact journals.


APC (article processing charge)
An APC is a fee paid to the publisher to make an article free at point of access (Gold OA or Hybrid OA).

Double dipping
Double-dipping describes the situation where a journal charges an APC on top of its normal subscription fee if an author wishes to make their particular article OA. In effect, the institution is paying twice. (Hybrid OA)

A period of time defined by the publisher during which the author can not publish a self-archived open access copy of the publication in question. Embargo periods are typically from 6-36 months. The embargo period starts from the date of publication.

Final published version/Publisher PDF
The paper or article in the format in which it appears in the publication (i.e., the final version with the proper layout).

Institutional Repository
A university's or research facility's online database of their OA works. Repositories do not undertake peer review but do hold material that has been peer reviewed elsewhere. In addition repositories can hold 'grey literature' such as Theses, Discussion Papers, Datasets and other material for example Theseus .

Parallel publishing 
The paper or article is published in a journal by a publisher, but a copy (usually the final draft) is made available OA in a repository. (Green OA)

Post-print/Final draft/Author accepted manuscript
A paper or article that has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but hasn't yet been laid out for publication by the publisher.

A draft version of a paper or article that hasn't been peer reviewed.

Haaga-Helia supports open access publishing

  • Maintaining open access publication platform that includes eSignals, eSignals PRO and eSignals Research
  • Self-archiving publications to publication repository Theseus
  • The right to publish open access for free or with a discount is included in some of the library´s journal subscription packages
  • Funding APC fees
  • Providing support services in open access and publication quality evaluation

Open Access Explained

Find open publications

What is Open Access?

Open access publishing means uploading a research paper or article on the Internet and granting the scientific community and the general public rights to read, copy, print and link to the entire publication. Open access publishing means free dissemination of scientific information. In many cases the openness of the publication is guaranteed by a Creative Commons -license.

Publishers have different open access business models and a publication can be open in varying ways.

Publication can be open immediately in the publishers platform, without charge or for a APC-fee. All publications within the publication channel can be open, or just specific articles, bought open separately.  A publication can alos be open access if the Version of Record or an earlier manuscript version of the article is archived in an open repository.

Open access benefits:

  • More visibility for your research
  • Increases the change of being cited
  • General public can access scientific results more easily
  • Increased economic and social impact

What are predatory publishers?

The flipside of open access publishing are "predatory" open access publishers take take advantage of open access business models based on article processing charges or other author fees.

These publishers operate on pay-to-publish model where there are no actual peer-review processes or editorial processes in place, even though the publisher may claim to adhere to principles of scientific publishing and peer-review. In practice, anything get´s published if the usually quite low cost APC is paid.

The publishers or journals can adopt a misleading name and title, imitating or copying reputable and prestigious journals. Journal titles and aims and scope can also be all-encompassing.

When a journal or publishers contacts you by email solicitating manuscript submissions based on your conference presentation or previous research article, pay attention to style and language, who is the undersigned, what is the email address where the message came from. Usually predatory publishers are quickly spotted, but some can be quite convincing, and it might be a good idea to search some more information about the publisher and journal in question.

Is the journal website professional? Is the information there correct? Do the articles they have previously publish demonstrate good editorial standards?

You can contact Haaga-Helia library if you need a second opinion on any offers to publish you may get.

Saavutettavuusseloste / Accessibility Statement