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Reference help: Welcome

Why? You distinguish your own words or ideas from those of your sources. Give credit where credit is due. Don’t steal! References show where you found your information. The reader can find the original source you used. References indicate how well you have familiarised yourself with the topic. When? When using someone else’s words or images.Both direct quotations (citation) and rephrased sources (summarizing) need to be referenced. Common knowledge does not require referencing. E.g.: The Bank of Finland is responsible for the issuance of banknotes and coins in Finland.

On using information sources

The reports, essays and theses written during your studies follow the principles of scientific writing. The author, among other things:

  • explores the topic with the help of the source material
  • analyses and examines the topic in relation to the source material
  • uses source criticism
  • validates the arguments presented in the text
  • indicates the sources used in the text

For tips on how to find and evaluate information sources, see How to search for information.

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Help us develop the guide. Send your feedback to:

Katri Hollo
Tuula Laurila

Saavutettavuusseloste / Accessibility Statement